Hydralazine Hydrochloride (Tablet)


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dailymed-drugs:98rdfs:labelHydralazine Hydrochloride (Tablet)lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:dosageInitiate therapy in gradually increasing dosages; adjust according to individual response. Start with 10 mg four times daily for the first 2-4 days, increase to 25 mg four times daily for the balance of the first week. For the second and subsequent weeks, increase dosage to 50 mg four times daily. For maintenance, adjust dosage to the lowest effective levels. The incidence of toxic reactions, particularly the L.E. cell syndrome, is high in the group of patients receiving large doses of hydralazine. In a few resistant patients, up to 300 mg of hydralazine daily may be required for a significant antihypertensive effect. In such cases, a lower dosage of hydralazine combined with a thiazide and/or reserpine or a beta blocker may be considered. However, when combining therapy, individual titration is essential to ensure the lowest possible therapeutic dose of each drug.lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:descripti...Hydralazine hydrochloride USP, is an antihypertensive, for oral administration. Its chemical name is 1-hydrazinophthalazine monohydrochloride, and its structural formula is: Hydralazine hydrochloride USP is a white to off-white, odorless crystalline powder. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and very slightly soluble in ether. It melts at about 275��C, with decomposition, and has a molecular weight of 196.64. Hydralazine HCl Tablets are available in 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg strengths. Each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate and stearic acid. In addition, the 10 mg tablet contains FD&C Red #40. The 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg tablets contain FD&C Yellow #6.lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:clinicalP...Although the precise mechanism of action of hydralazine is not fully understood, the major effects are on the cardiovascular system. Hydralazine apparently lowers blood pressure by exerting a peripheral vasodilating effect through a direct relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Hydralazine, by altering cellular calcium metabolism, interferes with the calcium movements within the vascular smooth muscle that are responsible for initiating or maintaining the contractile state. The peripheral vasodilating effect of hydralazine results in decreased arterial blood pressure (diastolic more than systolic); decreased peripheral vascular resistance; and an increased heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output. The preferential dilatation of arterioles, as compared to veins, minimizes postural hypotension and promotes the increase in cardiac output. Hydralazine usually increases renin activity in plasma, presumably as a result of increased secretion of renin by the renal juxtaglomerular cells in response to reflex sympathetic discharge. This increase in renin activity leads to the production of angiotensin II, which then causes stimulation of aldosterone and consequent sodium reabsorption. Hydralazine also maintains or increases renal and cerebral blood flow. Hydralazine hydrochloride is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and peak plasma levels are reached at 1-2 hours. Plasma levels of apparent hydralazine decline with a half-life of 3-7 hours. Binding to human plasma protein is 87%. Plasma levels of hydralazine vary widely among individuals. Hydralazine is subject to polymorphic acetylation; slow acetylators generally have higher plasma levelsof hydralazine and require lower doses to maintain control of blood pressure. Hydralazine undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism; it is excreted mainly in the form of metabolites in the urine.lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:contraind...Hypersensitivity to hydralazine; coronary artery disease; mitral valvular rheumatic heart disease.lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:supply10 mg - round, light pink colored, unscored tablets, debossed���Par 029���on one side are available in bottles of 100 (NDC #49884-029-01) and 1000 (NDC #49884-029-10). 25 mg - round, peach colored, unscored tablets, debossed���Par 027���on one side are available in bottles of 100 (NDC #49884-027-01) and 1000 (NDC #49884-027-10). 50 mg - round, peach colored, unscored tablets, debossed���Par 028���on one side are available in bottles of 100 (NDC #49884-028-01) and 1000 (NDC #49884-028-10). 100 mg - round, peach colored, unscored tablets, debossed���Par 121���on one side are available in bottles of 100 (NDC #49884-121-01) and 1000 (NDC #49884-121-10). Store at controlled room temperature 15��-30��C (59��-86��F) [see USP]. Manufactured by: PAR PHARMACEUTICAL, INC. Spring Valley, NY 10977lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:overdosag...Acute Toxicity: No deaths due to acute poisoning have been reported. Highest known dose survived: adults, 10 g orally. Oral LDin rats: 173 and 187 mg/kg. Signs and Symptoms: Signs and symptoms of overdosage include hypotension, tachycardia, headache, and generalized skin flushing. Complications can include myocardial ischemia and subsequent myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and profound shock. Treatment: There is no specific antidote. The gastric contents should be evacuated, taking adequate precautions against aspiration and for protection of the airway. An activated charcoal slurry may be instilled if conditions permit. These manipulations may have to be omitted or carried out after cardiovascular status has been stabilized, since they might precipitate cardiac arrhythmias or increase the depth of shock. Support of the cardiovascular system is of primary importance. Shock should be treated with plasma expanders. If possible, vasopressors should not be given, but if a vasopressor is required, care should be taken not to precipitate or aggravate cardiac arrhythmia. Tachycardia responds to beta blockers. Digitalization may be necessary, and renal function should be monitored and supported as required. No experience has been reported with extracorporeal or peritoneal dialysis.lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:genericMe...Hydralazine Hydrochloridelld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:fullNameHydralazine Hydrochloride (Tablet)lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:adverseRe...Adverse reactions with hydralazine are usually reversible when dosage is reduced. However, in some cases it may be necessary to discontinue the drug. The following adverse reactions have been observed, but there has not been enough systematic collection of data to support an estimate of their frequency. Common: headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, palpitations, tachycardia, angina pectoris. Less Frequent: Digestive: constipation, paralytic ileus. Cardiovascular: hypotension, paradoxical pressor response, edema. Respiratory: dyspnea. Neurologic: peripheral neuritis, evidenced by paresthesia, numbness, and tingling; dizziness, tremors, muscle cramps, psychotic reactions characterized by depression, disorientation or anxiety. Genitourinary: difficulty in urination. Hematologic: blood dyscrasias, consisting of reduction in hemoglobin and red cell count, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, purpura; lymphadenopathy; splenomegaly. Hypersensitive Reactions: rash, urticaria, pruritus, fever, chills, arthralgia, eosinophilia, and rarely, hepatitis. Other: nasal congestion, flushing, lacrimation, conjunctivitis.lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:warningIn a few patients hydralazine may produce a clinical picture simulating systemic lupus erythematosus including glomerulonephritis. In such patients hydralazine should be discontinued unless the benefit-to-risk determination requires continued antihypertensive therapy with this drug. Symptoms and signs usually regress when the drug is discontinued but residua have been detected many years later. Long-term treatment with steroids may be necessary. (See PRECAUTIONS,Laboratory Tests.)lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:indicatio...Essential hypertension, alone or as an adjunct.lld:dailymed
dailymed-drugs:98dailymed-instance:nameHydralazine Hydrochloridelld:dailymed