When estrogen is prescribed for a postmenopausal woman with a uterus, progestin should also be initiated to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. A woman without a uterus does not need progestin. Use of estrogen, alone or in combination with a progestin, should be with the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Patients should be reevaluated periodically as clinically appropriate (e.g., 3-month to 6-month intervals) to determine if treatment is still necessary (See Boxed Warnings and Warnings.) For women who have a uterus, adequate diagnostic measures, such as endometrial sampling, when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in cases of undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal vaginal bleeding. Patients should be started at the lowest dose. Six (6.5, 9.375, 12.5, 15, 18.75 and 25 cm) Climara systems are available. For the treatment of vasomotor symptoms, treatment should be initiated with the 6.5 cm(0.025 mg/day) Climara system applied to the skin once weekly. The dose should be adjusted as necessary to control symptoms. Clinical responses (relief of symptoms) at the lowest effective dose should be the guide for establishing administration of the Climara system, especially in women with an intact uterus. Attempts to taper or discontinue the medication should be made at 3- to 6-month intervals. In women who are not currently taking oral estrogens, treatment with the Climara system can be initiated at once. In women who are currently taking oral estrogen, treatment with the Climara system can be initiated 1-week after withdrawal of oral therapy or sooner if symptoms reappear in less than 1-week. For the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the minimum dose that has been shown to be effective is the 6.5 cm(0.025 mg/day) Climara system. Response to therapy can be assessed by biochemical markers and measurement of bone mineral density.<br/>Application of the System: The adhesive side of the Climara system should be placed on a clean, dry area of the lower abdomen or the upper quadrant of the buttock. The Climara system should not be applied to or near the breasts. The sites of application must be rotated, with an interval of at least 1-week allowed between applications to a particular site. The area selected should not be oily, damaged, or irritated. The waistline should be avoided, since tight clothing may rub and remove the system. Application to areas where sitting would dislodge the system should also be avoided. The system should be applied immediately after opening the pouch and removing the protective liner. The system should be pressed firmly in place with the fingers for about 10 seconds, making sure there is good contact, especially around the edges. If the system lifts, apply pressure to maintain adhesion. In the event that a system should fall off, a new system should be applied for the remainder of the 7-day dosing interval. Only one system should be worn at any one time during the 7-day dosing interval. Swimming, bathing, or using a sauna while using the Climara system has not been studied, and these activities may decrease the adhesion of the system and the delivery of estradiol.<br/>Removal of the System: Removal of the system should be done carefully and slowly to avoid irritation of the skin. Should any adhesive remain on the skin after removal of the system, allow the area to dry for 15 minutes. Then gently rubbing the area with an oil-based cream or lotion should remove the adhesive residue. Used patches still contain some active hormones. Each patch should be carefully folded in half so that it sticks to itself before throwing it away.
Climara, estradiol transdermal system, is designed to release estradiol continuously upon application to intact skin. Six (6.5, 9.375, 12.5, 15, 18.75 and 25 cm) systems are available to provide nominal in vivo delivery of 0.025, 0.0375, 0.05, 0.06, 0.075 or 0.1 mg respectively of estradiol per day. The period of use is 7 days. Each system has a contact surface area of either 6.5, 9.375, 12.5, 15, 18.75 or 25 cm, and contains 2, 2.85, 3.8, 4.55, 5.7 or 7.6 mg of estradiol USP respectively. The composition of the systems per unit area is identical. Estradiol USP is a white, crystalline powder, chemically described as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3, 17��-diol. It has an empirical formula of CHOand molecular weight of 272.39. The structural formula is: The Climara system comprises three layers. Proceeding from the visible surface toward the surface attached to the skin, these layers are (1) a translucent polyethylene film, and (2) an acrylate adhesive matrix containing estradiol USP. A protective liner (3) of siliconized or fluoropolymer-coated polyester film is attached to the adhesive surface and must be removed before the system can be used. The active component of the system is estradiol. The remaining components of the system (acrylate copolymer adhesive, fatty acid esters, and polyethylene backing) are pharmacologically inactive.
Endogenous estrogens are largely responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Although circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions, estradiol is the principal intracellular human estrogen and is substantially more potent than its metabolites, estrone and estriol at the receptor level. The primary source of estrogen in normally cycling adult women is the ovarian follicle, which secretes 70 to 500 mcg of estradiol daily, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. After menopause, most endogenous estrogen is produced by conversion of androstenedione, secreted by the adrenal cortex, to estrone by peripheral tissues. Thus, estrone and the sulfate conjugated form, estrone sulfate, are the most abundant circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Estrogens act through binding to nuclear receptors in estrogen-responsive tissues. To date, two estrogen receptors have been identified. These vary in proportion from tissue to tissue. Circulating estrogens modulate the pituitary secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), through a negative feedback mechanism. Estrogens act to reduce the elevated levels of these hormones seen in postmenopausal women.<br/>Pharmacokinetics: Transdermal administration of Climara produces mean serum concentrations of estradiol comparable to those produced by premenopausal women in the early follicular phase of the ovulatory cycle. The pharmacokinetics of estradiol following application of the Climara system were investigated in 197 healthy postmenopausal women in six studies. In five of the studies Climara system was applied to the abdomen and in a sixth study application to the buttocks and abdomen were compared.<br/>Absorption: The Climara transdermal delivery system continuously releases estradiol which is transported across intact skin leading to sustained circulating levels of estradiol during a 7-day treatment period. The systemic availability of estradiol after transdermal administration is about 20 times higher than that after oral administration. This difference is due to the absence of first pass metabolism when estradiol is given by the transdermal route. In a bioavailability study, the Climara 6.5 cmwas studied with the Climara 12.5 cmas reference. The mean estradiol levels in serum from the two sizes are shown in Figure 1. Dose proportionality was demonstrated for the Climara 6.5 cmtransdermal system as compared to the Climara 12.5 cmtransdermal system in a 2-week crossover study with a 1-week washout period between the two-transdermal systems in 24 postmenopausal women. Dose proportionality was also demonstrated for the Climara system (12.5 cmand 25 cm) in a 1-week study conducted in 54 postmenopausal women. The mean steady state levels (Cavg) of the estradiol during the application of Climara 25 cmand 12.5 cmon the abdomen were about 80 and 40 pg/mL, respectively. In a 3 week multiple application study in 24 postmenopausal women, the 25 cmClimara system produced average peak estradiol concentrations (Cmax) of approximately 100 pg/mL. Trough values at the end of each wear interval (Cmin) were approximately 35 pg/mL. Nearly identical serum curves were seen each week, indicating little or no accumulation of estradiol in the body. Serum estrone peak and trough levels were 60 and 40 pg/mL, respectively. In a single dose, randomized, crossover study conducted to compare the effect of site of application, 38 postmenopausal women wore a single Climara 25 cmsystem for 1 week on the abdomen and buttocks. The estradiol serum concentration profiles are shown in Figure 2. Cmax and Cavg values were, respectively, 25% and 17% higher with the buttock application than with the abdomen application. Table 1 provides a summary of estradiol pharmacokinetic parameters determined during evaluation of Climara. The relative standard deviation of each pharmacokinetic parameter after application to the abdomen averaged 50%, which is indicative of the considerable intersubject variability associated with transdermal drug delivery. The relative standard deviation of each pharmacokinetic parameter after application to the buttock was lower than that after application to the abdomen (e.g., for Cmax 39% vs 62%, and for Cavg 35% vs 48%).<br/>Distribution: The distribution of exogenous estrogens is similar to that of endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are widely distributed in the body and are generally found in higher concentrations in the sex hormone target organs. Estrogens circulate in the blood largely bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin.<br/>Metabolism: Exogenous estrogens are metabolized in the same manner as endogenous estrogens. Circulating estrogens exist in a dynamic equilibrium of metabolic interconversions. These transformations take place mainly in the liver. Estradiol is converted reversibly to estrone, and both can be converted to estriol, which is the major urinary metabolite. Estrogens also undergo enterohepatic recirculation via sulfate and glucuronide conjugation in the liver, biliary secretion of conjugates into the intestine, and hydrolysis in the gut followed by reabsorption. In postmenopausal women, a significant proportion of the circulating estrogens exist as sulfate conjugates, especially estrone sulfate, which serves as a circulating reservoir for the formation of more active estrogens.<br/>Excretion: Estradiol, estrone, and estriol are excreted in the urine along with glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.<br/>Special Populations:<br/>Geriatric:: There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric patients involved in clinical studies utilizing Climara to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to Climara.<br/>Pediatric:: No pharmacokinetic study for Climara has been conducted in a pediatric population.<br/>Gender:: Climara is indicated for use in women only.<br/>Race:: No studies were done to determine the effect of race on the pharmacokinetics of Climara.<br/>Patients with Renal Impairment:: Total estradiol serum levels are higher in postmenopausal women with end stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving maintenance hemodialysis than in normal subjects at baseline and following oral doses of estradiol. Therefore, conventional transdermal estradiol doses used in individuals with normal renal function may be excessive for postmenopausal women with ESRD receiving maintenance hemodialysis.<br/>Patients with Hepatic Impairment:: Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function and should be administered with caution.<br/>Drug Interactions: In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that estrogens are metabolized partially by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Therefore, inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A4 may affect estrogen drug metabolism. Inducers of CYP3A4 such as St. John's Wort preparations (Hypericum perforatum), phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and rifampin may reduce plasma concentrations of estrogens, possibly resulting in a decrease in therapeutic effects and/or changes in the uterine bleeding profile. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir and grapefruit juice may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and may result in side effects.<br/>Adhesion: An open-label study of adhesion potentials of placebo transdermal systems that correspond to the 6.5 cmand 12.5 cmsizes of Climara was conducted in 112 healthy women of 45-75 years of age. Each woman applied both transdermal systems weekly, on the upper outer abdomen, for 3 consecutive weeks. It should be noted that lower abdomen and upper quadrant of the buttock are the approved sites of application for Climara. The adhesion assessment was done visually on Days 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 of each week of transdermal system wear. A total of 1654 adhesion observations were conducted for 333 transdermal systems of each size. Of these observations, approximately 90% showed essentially no lift for both the 6.5 cmand 12.5 cmtransdermal systems. Of the total number of transdermal systems applied, approximately 5% showed complete detachment for each size. Adhesion potentials of the 18.75 cmand 25 cmsizes of transdermal systems (0.075 mg/day and 0.1 mg/day) have not been studied.<br/>Clinical Studies:<br/>Effects on vasomotor symptoms: A study of 214 women 25 to 74 years old met the qualification criteria and were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: 72 to the 0.05 mg estradiol patch, 70 to the 0.1 mg estradiol patch, and 72 to placebo. Potential subjects were postmenopausal women in good general health who experienced vasomotor symptoms. Natural menopause patients had not menstruated for at least 12 months and surgical menopause patients had undergone bilateral oophorectomy at least 4 weeks before evaluation for study entry. In order to enter the 11-week treatment phase of the study, potential subjects must have experienced a minimum of five moderate to severe hot flushes per week, or a minimum of 15 hot flushes of any severity per week, for 2 consecutive weeks. Women wore the patches in a cyclical fashion (three weeks on and one week off). During treatment, all subjects used diaries to record the number and severity of hot flushes. Subjects were monitored by clinic visits at the end of weeks 1, 3, 7, and 11 and by telephone at the end of weeks 4, 5, 8, and 9. Adequate data for the analysis of efficacy was available from 191 subjects. The results are presented as the mean��SD number of flushes in each of the 3 treatment weeks of each 4-week cycle. In the 0.05 mg estradiol group, the mean weekly hot flush rate across all treatment cycles decreased from 46��6.5 at baseline to 20��3 (-67%). The 0.1 mg estradiol group had a decline in the mean weekly hot flush rate from 52��4.4 at baseline to 16��2.4 (-72%). In the placebo group, the mean weekly hot flush rate declined from 53��4.5 at baseline to 46��6.5 (-18.1%). Compared with placebo, the 0.05 mg and 0.1 mg estradiol groups showed a statistically significantly larger mean decrease in hot flushes across all treatment cycles (P<0.05). When the response to treatment was analyzed for each of the three cycles of therapy, similar statistically significant differences were observed between both estradiol treatment groups and the placebo group during all treatment cycles. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of 187 women receiving Climara 0.025 mg/day or placebo continuously for up to three 28-day cycles, the Climara 0.025 mg/day dosage was shown to be statistically better than placebo at weeks 4 and 12 for relief of both the frequency and severity of moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms. A second active-control trial of 193 randomized subjects was supportive of the placebo-controlled trial.<br/>Effects on bone mineral density: A two-year clinical trial enrolled a total of 175 healthy, hysterectomized, postmenopausal, non-osteoporotic (i.e., lumbar spine bone mineral density>0.9 gm/cm) women at 10 study centers in the United States. 129 subjects were allocated to receive active treatment with 4 different doses of estradiol patches (6.5, 12.5, 15, 25 cm) and 46 subjects were allocated to receive placebo patches. 77% of the randomized subjects (100 on active drug and 34 on placebo) contributed data to the analysis of percent change of A-P spine bone mineral density (BMD), the primary efficacy variable (see Figure 3). A statistically significant overall treatment effect at each timepoint was noted, implying bone preservation for all active treatment groups at all timepoints, as opposed to bone loss for placebo at all timepoints. Percent change in BMD of the total hip (see Figure 4) was also statistically significantly different from placebo for all active treatment groups. The results of the measurements of biochemical markers supported the finding of efficacy for all doses of transdermal estradiol. Serum osteocalcin levels decreased, indicative of a decrease in bone formation, at all timepoints for all active treatment doses, statistically significantly different from placebo (which generally rose). Urinary deoxypyridinoline and pyridinoline changes also suggested a decrease in bone turnover for all active treatment groups.<br/>Women's Health Initiative Studies: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) enrolled a total of 27,000 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women to assess the risks and benefits of either the use of oral 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens (CE) per day alone or the use of 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) per day compared to placebo in the prevention of certain chronic diseases. The primary endpoint was the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) (nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome studied. A "global index" included the earliest occurrence of CHD, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism (PB), endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer, hip fixture, or death due to other cause. The study did not evaluate the effects of CE or CE/MPA on menopausal symptoms. The CE/MPA substudy was stopped early because, according to the predefined stopping rule, the increased risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular events exceeded the specified benefits included in the "global index." Results of the CE/MPA substudy, which included 16,608 women (average age of 63 years, range 50 to 79; 83.9% White, 6.5% Black, 5.5% Hispanic), after an average follow-up of 5.2 years are presented in Table 3 below: For those outcomes included in the "global index," the absolute excess risks per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE/MPA were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 8 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while absolute risk reductions per 10,000 women-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures. The absolute excess risk of events included in the "global index" was 19 per 10,000 women-years. There was no difference between the groups in terms of all-cause mortality. .<br/>Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, enrolled 4,532 predominantly postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older (47% were age 65 to 69 years, 35% were 70 to 74 years, and 18% were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of CE/MPA (0.625 mg conjugated estrogens plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate) on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared with placebo. After an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the estrogen/progestin group (45 per 10, 000 women-years) and 21 in the placebo group (22 per 10,000 women-years) were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia in the hormone therapy group was 2.05 (95% CI, 1.21 to 3.48) compared to placebo. Differences between groups became apparent in the first year of treatment. It is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women. (See Boxed Warnings and Warnings, Dementia and PRECAUTIONS , Geriatric use.)
Climara should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:
Do not store above 86��F (30��C). Do not store unpouched. Apply immediately upon removal from the protective pouch. Manufactured for: Manufactured by 3M Drug Delivery Systems Northridge, CA 91324 Copyright 2007, Bayer HeathCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Warnings: ESTROGENS INCREASE THE RISK OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER Close clinical surveillance of all women taking estrogens is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in all cases of undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal vaginal bleeding. There is no evidence that the use of���natural���estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens at equivalent estrogen doses. (See Warnings, Malignant neoplasms , Endometrial cancer .) CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER RISKS Estrogens with and without progestins should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia. (See Warnings, Cardiovascular disorders and Dementia .) The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study reported increased risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5mg) relative to placebo. (See Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies and Warnings, Cardiovascular disorders and Malignant neoplasms , Breast cancer ). The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, reported increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women. (See Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies and Warnings, Dementia and PRECAUTIONS , Geriatric use.) Other doses of oral conjugated estrogens with medroxyprogesterone acetate, and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins were not studied in the WHI clinical trials and, in the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar. Because of these risks, estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.
General:<br/>1. Addition of a progestin when a woman has not had a hysterectomy.: Studies of the addition of a progestin for 10 or more days of a cycle of estrogen administration, or daily with estrogen in a continuous regimen, have reported a lowered incidence of endometrial hyperplasia than would be induced by estrogen treatment alone. Endometrial hyperplasia may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone treatment. These include a possible increased risk of breast cancer.<br/>2. Elevated blood pressure: In a small number of case reports, substantial increases in blood pressure have been attributed to idiosyncratic reactions to estrogens. In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a generalized effect of estrogens on blood pressure was not seen. Blood pressure should be monitored at regular intervals with estrogen use.<br/>3. Hypertriglyceridemia: In patients with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis and other complications.<br/>4. Impaired liver function and past history of cholestatic jaundice: Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function. For patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued.<br/>5. Hypothyroidism: Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels. Patients with normal thyroid function can compensate for the increased TBG by making more thyroid hormone, thus maintaining free Tand Tserum concentrations in the normal range. Patients dependent on thyroid hormone replacement therapy who are also receiving estrogens may require increased doses of their thyroid replacement therapy. These patients should have their thyroid function monitored in order to maintain their free thyroid hormone levels in an acceptable range.<br/>6. Fluid retention: Because estrogens may cause some degree of fluid retention, patients with conditions that might be influenced by this factor, such as a cardiac or renal dysfunction, warrant careful observation when estrogens are prescribed.<br/>7. Hypocalcemia: Estrogens should be used with caution in individuals with severe hypocalcemia.<br/>8. Ovarian cancer: The CE/MPA sub-study of WHI reported that estrogen plus progestin increased the risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for CE/MPA versus placebo was 1.58 (95% confidence interval 0.77-3.24) but was not statistically significant. The absolute risk for CE/MPA versus placebo was 4.2 versus 2.7 cases per 10,000 women-years. In some epidemiological studies, the use of estrogen alone, in particular for ten or more years, has been associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Other epidemiologic studies have not found these associations.<br/>9. Exacerbation of endometriosis: Endometriosis may be exacerbated with administration of estrogens. A few cases of malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated post-hysterectomy with estrogen alone therapy. For patients known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered.<br/>10. Exacerbation of other conditions: Estrogens may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine or porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions. In women with hereditary angioderma, exogenoous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms of angioderma.<br/>PATIENT INFORMATION: Physicians are advised to discuss the PATIENT INFORMATION leaflet with patients for whom they prescribe Climara.<br/>LABORATORY TESTS: Estrogen administration should be initiated at the lowest dose approved for the indication and then guided by clinical response rather than by serum hormone levels (e.g. estradiol, FSH).<br/>DRUG/LABORATORY TEST INTERACTIONS:<br/>CARCINOGENESES, MUTAGENESIS, AND IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITY: Long-term continuous administration of estrogen, with and without progestin, in women with and without a uterus, has shown an increased risk of endometrial cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. Long-term continuous administration of natural and synthetic estrogens in certain animal species increases the frequency of carcinomas of the breast, uterus, cervix, vagina, testis, and liver.<br/>Pregnancy: Climara should not be used during pregnancy.<br/>Nursing mothers: Estrogen administration to nursing mothers has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the milk. Detectable amounts of estrogens have been identified in the milk of mothers receiving this drug. Caution should be exercised when Climara is administered to a nursing woman.<br/>Pediatric use: Estrogen replacement therapy has been used for the induction of puberty in adolescents with some forms of pubertal delay. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not otherwise been established. Large and repeated doses of estrogen over an extended time period have been shown to accelerate epiphyseal closure, which could result in short adult stature if treatment is initiated before the completion of physiologic puberty in normally developing children. If estrogen is administered to patients whose bone growth is not complete, periodic monitoring of bone maturation and effects on epiphyseal centers is recommended during estrogen administration. Estrogen treatment of prepubertal girls also induces premature breast development and vaginal cornification, and may induce vaginal bleeding. In boys, estrogen treatment may modify the normal pubertal process and induce gynecomastia.<br/>Geriatric use: There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric patients involved in clinical studies utilizing Climara to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to Climara. In the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, including 4,532 women 65 years of age and older, followed for an average of 4 years, 82% (n=3,729) were 65 to 74 while 18% (n=803) were 75 and over. Most women (80%) had no prior hormone therapy use. Women treated with conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate were reported to have a two-fold increase in the risk of developing probable dementia. Alzheimer's disease was the most common classification of probable dementia in both the conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate group and the placebo group. Ninety percent of the cases of probable dementia occurred in the 54% of women that were older than 70. (See Boxed Warnings and Warnings, Dementia .)
Serious ill effects have not been reported following acute ingestion of large doses of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives by young children. Overdosage of estrogen may cause nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.
See Boxed Warnings, Warnings and PRECAUTIONS . Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates. The following additional adverse reactions have been reported with estrogen and/or progestin therapy.<br/>1. Genitourinary system: Changes in vaginal bleeding pattern and abnormal withdrawal bleeding or flow; breakthrough bleeding; spotting; dysmenorrhea; increase in size of uterine leiomyomata; vaginitis, including vaginal candidiasis; change in amount of cervical secretion; changes in cervical ectropion; ovarian cancer; endometrial hyperplasia; endometrial cancer.<br/>2. Breasts: Tenderness, enlargement, pain, nipple discharge, galactorrhea; fibrocystic breast changes; breast cancer.<br/>3. Cardiovascular: Deep and superficial venous thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; thrombophlebitis; myocardial infarction; stroke; increase in blood pressure.<br/>4. Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting; abdominal cramps, bloating; cholestatic jaundice; increased incidence of gall bladder disease; pancreatitis; enlargement of hepatic hemangiomas.<br/>5. Skin: Chloasma or melasma, which may persist when drug is discontinued; erythema multiforme; erythema nodosum; hemorrhagic eruption; loss of scalp hair; hirsutism; pruritus, rash.<br/>6. Eyes: Retinal vascular thrombosis, intolerance to contact lenses.<br/>7. Central nervous system: Headache; migraine; dizziness; mental depression; chorea; nervousness; mood disturbances; irritability; exacerbation of epilepsy, dementia.<br/>8. Miscellaneous: Increase or decrease in weight; reduced carbohydrate tolerance; aggravation of porphyria; edema; arthalgias; leg cramps; changes in libido; anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions ; hypocalcemia; exacerbation of asthma; increased triglycerides. In women with hereditary angioderma, exogenoous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms of angioderma.
ESTROGENS INCREASE THE RISK OF ENDOMETRIAL CANCER Close clinical surveillance of all women taking estrogens is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in all cases of undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal vaginal bleeding. There is no evidence that the use of���natural���estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens at equivalent estrogen doses. (See Warnings, Malignant neoplasms , Endometrial cancer .) CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER RISKS Estrogens with and without progestins should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia. (See Warnings, Cardiovascular disorders and Dementia .) The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study reported increased risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5mg) relative to placebo. (See Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies and Warnings, Cardiovascular disorders and Malignant neoplasms , Breast cancer ). The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, reported increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women. (See Clinical Pharmacology, Clinical Studies and Warnings, Dementia and PRECAUTIONS , Geriatric use.) Other doses of oral conjugated estrogens with medroxyprogesterone acetate, and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins were not studied in the WHI clinical trials and, in the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar. Because of these risks, estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.
Climara is indicated in the: