Major Depressive Disorder:<br/>Initial Treatment:<br/>Maintenance/Continuation/Extended Treatment: It is generally agreed that acute episodes of major depressive disorder require several months or longer of sustained pharmacologic therapy. Whether the dose needed to induce remission is identical to the dose needed to maintain and/or sustain euthymia is unknown.<br/>Daily Dosing: Systematic evaluation of fluoxetine in adult patients has shown that its efficacy in major depressive disorder is maintained for periods of up to 38 weeks following 12 weeks of open-label acute treatment (50 weeks total) at a dose of 20 mg/day .<br/>Switching Patients to a Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA): Dosage of a TCA may need to be reduced, and plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored temporarily when fluoxetine is coadministered or has been recently discontinued .<br/>Switching Patients to or from a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI): At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI and initiation of therapy with fluoxetine. In addition, at least 5 weeks, perhaps longer, should be allowed after stopping fluoxetine before starting an MAOI .<br/>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:<br/>Initial Treatment:<br/>Maintenance/Continuation Treatment: While there are no systematic studies that answer the question of how long to continue fluoxetine, OCD is a chronic condition and it is reasonable to consider continuation for a responding patient. Although the efficacy of fluoxetine after 13 weeks has not been documented in controlled trials, adult patients have been continued in therapy under double-blind conditions for up to an additional 6 months without loss of benefit. However, dosage adjustments should be made to maintain the patient on the lowest effective dosage, and patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for treatment.<br/>Bulimia Nervosa:<br/>Initial Treatment: In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of bulimia nervosa, patients were administered fixed daily fluoxetine doses of 20 or 60 mg, or placebo . Only the 60 mg dose was statistically significantly superior to placebo in reducing the frequency of binge eating and vomiting. Consequently, the recommended dose is60 mg/day, administered in the morning. For some patients it may be advisable to titrate up to this target dose over several days. Fluoxetine doses above 60 mg/day have not been systematically studied in patients with bulimia. As with the use of fluoxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder and OCD, a lower or less frequent dosage should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. A lower or less frequent dosage should also be considered for the elderly , and for patients with concurrent disease or on multiple concomitant medications. Dosage adjustments for renal impairment are not routinely necessary .<br/>Maintenance/Continuation Treatment: Systematic evaluation of continuing fluoxetine 60 mg/day for periods of up to 52 weeks in patients with bulimia who have responded while taking fluoxetine 60 mg/day during an 8 week acute treatment phase has demonstrated a benefit of such maintenance treatment . Nevertheless, patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for maintenance treatment.<br/>Panic Disorder:<br/>Initial Treatment: In the controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine supporting its effectiveness in the treatment of panic disorder, patients were administered fluoxetine doses in the range of 10 to 60 mg/day . Treatment should be initiated with a dose of 10 mg/day. After one week, the dose should be increased to 20 mg/day. The most frequently administered dose in the 2 flexible-dose clinical trials was 20 mg/day. A dose increase may be considered after several weeks if no clinical improvement is observed. Fluoxetine doses above 60 mg/day have not been systematically evaluated in patients with panic disorder. As with the use of fluoxetine in other indications, a lower or less frequent dosage should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. A lower or less frequent dosage should also be considered for the elderly , and for patients with concurrent disease or on multiple concomitant medications. Dosage adjustments for renal impairment are not routinely necessary .<br/>Maintenance/Continuation Treatment: While there are no systematic studies that answer the question of how long to continue fluoxetine, panic disorder is a chronic condition and it is reasonable to consider continuation for a responding patient. Nevertheless, patients should be periodically reassessed to determine the need for continued treatment.<br/>Special Populations:<br/>Treatment of Pregnant Women During the Third Trimester: Neonates exposed to fluoxetine and other SSRIs or SNRIs, late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding . When treating pregnant women with fluoxetine during the third trimester, the physician should carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of treatment. The physician may consider tapering fluoxetine in the third trimester.<br/>Discontinuation of Treatment with Fluoxetine: Symptoms associated with discontinuation of fluoxetine and other SSRIs and SNRIs, have been reported . Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate. Plasma fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentration decrease gradually at the conclusion of therapy which may minimize the risk of discontinuation symptoms with this drug.
Fluoxetine hydrochloride is a psychotropic drug for oral administration. It is also marketed for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (Sarafem, fluoxetine hydrochloride). It is designated (��)-N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[(��,��,��-trifluoro-p-tolyl)oxy]propylamine hydrochloride and has the molecular formula of CHFNO���HCl. Its molecular weight is 345.79. The structural formula is: Fluoxetine hydrochloride, USP is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a solubility of 14 mg/mL in water. Each capsule contains colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, sodium lauryl sulfate. In addition, each of the empty gelatin capsules contains gelatin, sodium lauryl sulfate, and titanium dioxide and the following colorant agents: 10 mg���FD&C Red No. 40; the 20 mg���FD&C Blue No. 1 and FD&C Red No. 40; and the 40 mg���FD&C Blue No. 1 and FD&C Red No. 3. The imprinting ink contains the following: black iron oxide, D&C Yellow No. 10 aluminum lake, FD&C Blue No. 1 aluminum lake, FD&C Blue No. 2 aluminum lake, FD&C Red No. 40 aluminum lake, propylene glycol, and shellac glaze.
Pharmacodynamics: The antidepressant, antiobsessive-compulsive, and antibulimic actions of fluoxetine are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. Studies at clinically relevant doses in man have demonstrated that fluoxetine blocks the uptake of serotonin into human platelets. Studies in animals also suggest that fluoxetine is a much more potent uptake inhibitor of serotonin than of norepinephrine. Antagonism of muscarinic, histaminergic, and��-adrenergic receptors has been hypothesized to be associated with various anticholinergic, sedative, and cardiovascular effects of classical tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) drugs. Fluoxetine binds to these and other membrane receptors from brain tissue much less potently in vitro than do the tricyclic drugs.<br/>Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion:<br/>Systemic Bioavailability: In man, following a single oral 40 mg dose, peak plasma concentrations of fluoxetine from 15 to 55 ng/mL are observed after 6 to 8 hours. The capsule, tablet, and oral solution dosage forms of fluoxetine are bioequivalent. Food does not appear to affect the systemic bioavailability of fluoxetine, although it may delay its absorption by 1 to 2 hours, which is probably not clinically significant. Thus, fluoxetine may be administered with or without food.<br/>Protein Binding: Over the concentration range from 200 to 1000 ng/mL, approximately 94.5% of fluoxetine is bound in vitro to human serum proteins, including albumin and��-glycoprotein. The interaction between fluoxetine and other highly protein-bound drugs has not been fully evaluated, but may be important .<br/>Enantiomers: Fluoxetine is a racemic mixture (50/50) of R-fluoxetine and S-fluoxetine enantiomers. In animal models, both enantiomers are specific and potent serotonin uptake inhibitors with essentially equivalent pharmacologic activity. The S-fluoxetine enantiomer is eliminated more slowly and is the predominant enantiomer present in plasma at steady-state.<br/>Metabolism: Fluoxetine is extensively metabolized in the liver to norfluoxetine and a number of other unidentified metabolites. The only identified active metabolite, norfluoxetine, is formed by demethylation of fluoxetine. In animal models, S-norfluoxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake and has activity essentially equivalent to R- or S-fluoxetine. R-norfluoxetine is significantly less potent than the parent drug in the inhibition of serotonin uptake. The primary route of elimination appears to be hepatic metabolism to inactive metabolites excreted by the kidney.<br/>Clinical Issues Related to Metabolism/Elimination: The complexity of the metabolism of fluoxetine has several consequences that may potentially affect fluoxetine's clinical use.<br/>Variability in Metabolism: A subset (about 7%) of the population has reduced activity of the drug metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Such individuals are referred to as "poor metabolizers" of drugs such as debrisoquin, dextromethorphan, and the TCAs. In a study involving labeled and unlabeled enantiomers administered as a racemate, these individuals metabolized S-fluoxetine at a slower rate and thus achieved higher concentrations of S-fluoxetine. Consequently, concentrations of S-norfluoxetine at steady-state were lower. The metabolism of R-fluoxetine in these poor metabolizers appears normal. When compared with normal metabolizers, the total sum at steady-state of the plasma concentrations of the four active enantiomers was not significantly greater among poor metabolizers. Thus, the net pharmacodynamic activities were essentially the same. Alternative, nonsaturable pathways (non-2D6) also contribute to the metabolism of fluoxetine. This explains how fluoxetine achieves a steady-state concentration rather than increasing without limit. Because fluoxetine's metabolism, like that of a number of other compounds including TCAs and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), involves the CYP2D6 system, concomitant therapy with drugs also metabolized by this enzyme system (such as the TCAs) may lead to drug interactions .<br/>Accumulation and Slow Elimination: The relatively slow elimination of fluoxetine (elimination half-life of 1 to 3 days after acute administration and 4 to 6 days after chronic administration) and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine (elimination half-life of 4 to 16 days after acute and chronic administration), leads to significant accumulation of these active species in chronic use and delayed attainment of steady-state, even when a fixed dose is used. After 30 days of dosing at 40 mg/day, plasma concentrations offluoxetine in the range of 91 to 302 ng/mL and norfluoxetine in the range of 72 to 258 ng/mL have been observed. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine were higher than those predicted by single-dose studies, because fluoxetine's metabolism is not proportional to dose. Norfluoxetine, however, appears to have linear pharmacokinetics. Its mean terminal half-life after a single-dose was 8.6 days and after multiple-dosing was 9.3 days. Steady-state levels after prolonged dosing are similar to levels seen at 4 to 5weeks. The long elimination half-lives of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine assure that, even when dosing is stopped, active drug substance will persist in the body for weeks (primarily depending on individual patient characteristics, previous dosing regimen, and length of previous therapy at discontinuation). This is of potential consequence when drug discontinuation is required or when drugs are prescribed that might interact with fluoxetine and norfluoxetine following the discontinuation of fluoxetine.<br/>Liver Disease: As might be predicted from its primary site of metabolism, liver impairment can affect the elimination of fluoxetine. The elimination half-life of fluoxetine was prolonged in a study of cirrhotic patients, with a mean of 7.6 days compared with the range of 2 to 3 days seen in subjects without liver disease; norfluoxetine elimination was also delayed, with a mean duration of 12 days for cirrhotic patients compared with the range of 7 to 9 days in normal subjects. This suggests that the use of fluoxetine in patients with liver disease must be approached with caution. If fluoxetine is administered to patients with liver disease, a loweror less frequent dose should be used .<br/>Renal Disease: In depressed patients on dialysis (N = 12), fluoxetine administered as 20 mg once daily for 2 months produced steady-state fluoxetine and norfluoxetine plasma concentrations comparable with those seen in patients with normal renal function. While the possibility exists that renally excreted metabolites of fluoxetine may accumulate to higher levels in patients with severe renal dysfunction, use of a lower or less frequent dose is not routinely necessary in renally impaired patients .<br/>Age:<br/>Clinical Trials:<br/>Major Depressive Disorder:<br/>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:<br/>Bulimia Nervosa: The effectiveness of fluoxetine for the treatment of bulimia was demonstrated in two 8 week and one 16 week, multicenter, parallel group studies of adult outpatients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for bulimia. Patients in the 8 week studies received either 20 or 60 mg/day of fluoxetine or placebo in the morning. Patients in the 16 week study received a fixed fluoxetine dose of 60 mg/day (once a day) or placebo. Patients in these three studies had moderate to severe bulimia with median binge eating and vomiting frequencies ranging from 7 to 10 per week and 5 to 9 per week, respectively. In these three studies, fluoxetine 60 mg, but not 20 mg, was statistically significantly superior to placebo in reducing the number of binge eating and vomiting episodes per week. The statistically significantly superior effect of 60 mg vs. placebo was present as early as Week 1 and persisted throughout each study. The fluoxetine relatedreduction in bulimic episodes appeared to be independent of baseline depression as assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. In each of these three studies, the treatment effect, as measured by differences between fluoxetine 60 mg, and placebo on median reduction from baseline in frequency of bulimic behaviors at endpoint, ranged from 1 to 2 episodes per week for binge eating and 2 to 4 episodes per week for vomiting. The size of the effect was related to baseline frequency, with greater reductionsseen in patients with higher baseline frequencies. Although some patients achieved freedom from binge eating and purging as a result of treatment, for the majority, the benefit was a partial reduction in the frequency of binge eating and purging. In a longer-term trial, 150 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa, purging subtype, who had responded during a single-blind, 8 week acute treatment phase with fluoxetine 60 mg/day, were randomized to continuation of fluoxetine 60 mg/day or placebo, for up to 52 weeks of observation for relapse. Response during the single-blind phase was defined by having achieved at least a 50% decrease in vomiting frequency compared with baseline. Relapse during the double-blind phase was defined as a persistent return to baseline vomiting frequency or physician judgement that the patient had relapsed. Patients receiving continued fluoxetine 60 mg/day experienced a significantly longer time to relapse over the subsequent 52 weeks compared with those receiving placebo.<br/>Panic Disorder: The effectiveness of fluoxetine in the treatment of panic disorder was demonstrated in 2 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies of adult outpatients who had a primary diagnosis of panic disorder (DSM-IV), with or without agoraphobia. Study 1 (N = 180 randomized) was a 12 week flexible-dose study. Fluoxetine was initiated at 10 mg/day for the first week, after which patients were dosed in the range of 20 to 60 mg/day on the basis of clinical response and tolerability. A statistically significantly greater percentage of fluoxetine-treated patients were free from panic attacks at endpoint than placebo-treated patients, 42% vs. 28%, respectively. Study 2 (N = 214 randomized) was a 12 week flexible-dose study. Fluoxetine was initiated at 10 mg/day for the first week, after which patients were dosed in a range of 20 to 60 mg/day on the basis of clinical response and tolerability. A statistically significantly greater percentage of fluoxetine-treated patients were free from panic attacks at endpoint than placebo-treated patients, 62% vs. 44%, respectively.
Fluoxetine Capsules, USP are available containing fluoxetine hydrochloride, USP equivalent to 10 mg, 20 mg or 40 mg of fluoxetine. The 10 mg capsule is a hard-shell gelatin capsule with a white opaque cap and a flesh opaque body axially printed with MYLAN over 4210 in black ink on both the cap and the body. They are available as follows: NDC 0378-4210-01bottles of 100 capsules NDC 0378-4210-05bottles of 500 capsules The 20 mg capsule is a hard-shell gelatin capsule with a light turquoise blue opaque cap and a flesh opaque body axially printed with MYLAN over 4220 in black ink on both the cap and the body. They are available as follows: NDC 0378-4220-93bottles of 30 capsules NDC 0378-4220-01bottles of 100 capsules NDC 0378-4220-05bottles of 500 capsules The 40 mg capsule is a hard-shell gelatin capsule with a light blue opaque cap and a white opaque body axially printed with MYLAN over 4350 in black ink on both the cap and the body. They are available as follows: NDC 0378-4350-93bottles of 30 capsules NDC 0378-4350-01bottles of 100 capsules NDC 0378-4350-05bottles of 500 capsules Store at 20��to 25��C (68��to 77��F). [See USP for Controlled Room Temperature.] Protect from light. Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure. PHARMACIST: Dispense a Medication Guide with each prescription.
Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs: Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of fluoxetine or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapyshould be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Fluoxetine is approved for use in pediatric patients with MDD and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).
dailymed-ingredient:D&C_Yellow_No._10_aluminum_lake, dailymed-ingredient:FD&C_Blue_No._1_aluminum_lake, dailymed-ingredient:FD&C_Blue_No._2_aluminum_lake, dailymed-ingredient:FD&C_Red_No._40, dailymed-ingredient:FD&C_Red_No._40_aluminum_lake, dailymed-ingredient:black_iron_oxide, dailymed-ingredient:colloidal_silicon_dioxide, dailymed-ingredient:gelatin, dailymed-ingredient:magnesium_stearate, dailymed-ingredient:pregelatinized_starch, dailymed-ingredient:propylene_glycol, dailymed-ingredient:shellac_glaze, dailymed-ingredient:sodium_lauryl_sulfate, dailymed-ingredient:titanium_dioxide
Human Experience: Worldwide exposure to fluoxetine hydrochloride is estimated to be over 38 million patients (circa 1999). Of the 1578 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine hydrochloride, alone or with other drugs, reported from this population, there were 195 deaths. Among 633 adult patients who overdosed on fluoxetine hydrochloride alone, 34 resulted in a fatal outcome, 378 completely recovered, and 15 patients experienced sequelae after overdosage, including abnormal accommodation, abnormal gait, confusion, unresponsiveness, nervousness, pulmonary dysfunction, vertigo, tremor, elevated blood pressure, impotence, movement disorder, and hypomania. The remaining 206 patients had an unknown outcome. The most common signs and symptoms associated with nonfatal overdosage were seizures, somnolence, nausea, tachycardia, and vomiting. The largest known ingestion of fluoxetine hydrochloridein adult patients was 8 grams in a patient who took fluoxetine alone and who subsequently recovered. However, in an adult patient who took fluoxetine alone, an ingestion as low as 520 mg has been associated with lethal outcome, but causality has not been established. Among pediatric patients (ages 3 months to 17 years), there were 156 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine alone or in combination with other drugs. Six patients died, 127 patients completely recovered, one patient experienced renal failure, and 22 patients had an unknown outcome. One of the six fatalities was a 9 year old boy who had a history of OCD, Tourette's syndrome with tics, attention deficit disorder, and fetal alcohol syndrome. He had been receiving 100 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 months in addition to clonidine, methylphenidate, and promethazine. Mixed-drug ingestion or other methods of suicide complicated all six overdoses in children that resulted in fatalities. The largest ingestion in pediatric patients was3 grams which was nonlethal. Other important adverse events reported with fluoxetine overdose (single or multiple drugs) include coma, delirium, ECG abnormalities (such as QT interval prolongation and ventricular tachycardia, including Torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias), hypotension, mania, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like events, pyrexia, stupor, and syncope.<br/>Animal Experience: Studies in animals do not provide precise or necessarily valid information about the treatment of human overdose. However, animal experiments can provide useful insights into possible treatment strategies. The oral median lethal dose in rats and mice was found to be 452 and 248 mg/kg, respectively. Acute high oral doses produced hyperirritability and convulsions in several animal species. Among six dogs purposely overdosed with oral fluoxetine, five experienced grand mal seizures. Seizures stopped immediately upon the bolus intravenous administration of a standard veterinary dose of diazepam. In this short-term study, the lowest plasma concentration at which a seizure occurred was only twice the maximum plasma concentration seen in humans taking 80 mg/day, chronically. In a separate single-dose study, the ECG of dogs given high doses did not reveal prolongation of the PR, QRS, or QT intervals. Tachycardia and an increase in blood pressure were observed. Consequently, the value of the ECG in predicting cardiac toxicity is unknown. Nonetheless, the ECG should ordinarily be monitored in cases of human overdose .<br/>Management of Overdose: Treatment should consist of those general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any drug effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. General supportive and symptomatic measures are also recommended. Induction of emesis is not recommended. Gastric lavage with a large-bore orogastric tube with appropriate airway protection, if needed, may be indicated if performed soon after ingestion, or in symptomatic patients. Activated charcoal should be administered. Due to the large volume of distribution of this drug, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. No specific antidotes for fluoxetine are known. A specific caution involves patients who are taking or have recently taken fluoxetine and might ingest excessive quantities of a TCA. In such a case, accumulation of the parent tricyclic and/or an active metabolite may increase the possibility of clinically significant sequelae and extend the time needed for close medical observation . Based on experience in animals, which may not be relevant to humans, fluoxetine-induced seizures that fail to remit spontaneously may respond to diazepam. In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement. The physician should consider contacting a poison control center for additional information on the treatment of any overdose. Telephone numbers for certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR).
Multiple-doses of fluoxetine had been administered to 10,782 patients with various diagnoses in U.S. clinical trials as of May 8, 1995. In addition, there have been 425 patients administered fluoxetine in panic clinical trials. Adverse events were recorded by clinical investigators using descriptive terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events without first grouping similar types of events into a limited (i.e., reduced) number of standardized event categories. In the tables and tabulations that follow, COSTART Dictionary terminology has been used to classify reported adverse events. The stated frequencies represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type listed. An event was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. It is important to emphasize that events reported during therapy were not necessarily caused by it. The prescriber should be aware that the figures in the tables and tabulations cannot be used to predict the incidence of side effects in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and nondrug factors to the side effect incidence rate in the population studied.<br/>Incidence in Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, Bulimia and Panic Disorder Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials (excluding data from extensions of trials): Table 2 enumerates the most common treatment-emergent adverse events associated with the use of fluoxetine (incidence of at least 5% for fluoxetine and at least twice that for placebo within at least one of the indications) for the treatment of major depressive disorder, OCD, and bulimia in U.S. controlled clinical trials and panic disorder in U.S. plus non-U.S. controlled trials. Table 3 enumerates treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in 2% or more patients treated withfluoxetine and with incidence greater than placebo who participated in U.S. major depressive disorder, OCD, and bulimia controlled clinical trials and U.S. plus non-U.S. panic disorder controlled clinical trials. Table 3 provides combined data for the pool of studies that are provided separately by indication in Table 2.<br/>Associated with Discontinuation in Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, Bulimia and Panic Disorder Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials (excluding data from extensions of trials): Table 4 lists the adverse events associated with discontinuation of fluoxetine treatment (incidence at least twice that for placebo and at least 1% for fluoxetine in clinical trials collecting only a primary event associated with discontinuation) in major depressive disorder, OCD, bulimia and panic disorder clinical trials, plus non-U.S. panic disorder clinical trials.<br/>Other Adverse Events in Pediatric Patients (Children and Adolescents): Treatment-emergent adverse events were collected in 322 pediatric patients (180 fluoxetine-treated, 142 placebo-treated). The overall profile of adverse events was generally similar to that seen in adult studies, as shown in Tables 2 and 3. However, the following adverse events (excluding those which appear in the body or footnotes of Tables 2 and 3 and those for which the COSTART terms were uninformative or misleading) were reported at an incidence of at least 2% for fluoxetine and greater than placebo: thirst, hyperkinesia, agitation, personality disorder, epistaxis, urinary frequency, and menorrhagia. The most common adverse event (incidence at least 1% for fluoxetine and greater than placebo) associated with discontinuation in three pediatric placebo-controlled trials (N = 418 randomized; 228 fluoxetine-treated; 190 placebo-treated) was mania/hypomania (1.8% for fluoxetine-treated, 0% for placebo-treated). In these clinical trials, only a primary event associated with discontinuation was collected.<br/>Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction with SSRIs: Although changes in sexual desire, sexual performance, and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder, they may also be a consequence of pharmacologic treatment. In particular, some evidence suggests that SSRIs can cause such untoward sexual experiences. Reliable estimates of the incidence and severity of untoward experiences involving sexual desire, performance, and satisfaction are difficult to obtain, however, in part because patients and physicians maybe reluctant to discuss them. Accordingly, estimates of the incidence of untoward sexual experience and performance, cited in product labeling, are likely to underestimate their actual incidence. In patients enrolled in U.S. major depressive disorder, OCD, and bulimia placebo-controlled clinical trials, decreased libido was the only sexual side effect reported by at least 2% of patients taking fluoxetine (4% fluoxetine,<1% placebo). There have been spontaneous reports in women taking fluoxetine of orgasmic dysfunction, including anorgasmia. There are no adequate and well controlled studies examining sexual dysfunction with fluoxetine treatment. Priapism has been reported with all SSRIs. While it is difficult to know the precise risk of sexual dysfunction associated with the use of SSRIs, physicians should routinely inquire about such possible side effects.<br/>Other Events Observed in Clinical Trials: Following is a list of all treatment-emergent adverse events reported at anytime by individuals taking fluoxetine in U.S. clinical trials as of May 8, 1995 (10,782 patients) except (1) those listed in the body or footnotes of Tables 2 or 3 above or elsewhere in labeling; (2) those for which the COSTART terms were uninformative or misleading; (3) those events for which a causal relationship to fluoxetine use was considered remote; and (4) events occurring in only one patient treated with fluoxetine and which did not have a substantial probability of being acutely life-threatening. Events are classified within body system categories using the following definitions: frequent adverse events are defined as those occurring on one or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1,000 patients; rare events are those occurring in less than 1/1,000 patients. Body as a Whole: Frequent: chest pain, chills; Infrequent: chills and fever, face edema, intentional overdose, malaise, pelvic pain, suicide attempt; Rare: acute abdominal syndrome, hypothermia, intentional injury, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, photosensitivity reaction Cardiovascular System: Frequent: hemorrhage, hypertension, palpitation; Infrequent: angina pectoris, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, hypotension, migraine, myocardial infarct, postural hypotension, syncope, tachycardia, vascular headache; Rare: atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, cerebral embolism, cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular accident, extrasystoles, heart arrest, heartblock, pallor, peripheral vascular disorder, phlebitis, shock, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis, vasospasm, ventricular arrhythmia, ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular fibrillation Digestive System: Frequent: increased appetite, nausea and vomiting; Infrequent: aphthous stomatitis, cholelithiasis, colitis, dysphagia, eructation, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, glossitis, gum hemorrhage, hyperchlorhydria, increased salivation, liver function tests abnormal, melena, mouth ulceration, nausea/vomiting/diarrhea, stomach ulcer, stomatitis, thirst; Rare: biliary pain, bloody diarrhea, cholecystitis, duodenal ulcer, enteritis, esophageal ulcer, fecal incontinence, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hematemesis, hemorrhage of colon, hepatitis, intestinal obstruction, liver fatty deposit, pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, rectal hemorrhage, salivary gland enlargement, stomach ulcer hemorrhage, tongue edema Endocrine System: Infrequent: hypothyroidism; Rare: diabetic acidosis, diabetes mellitus Hemic and Lymphatic System: Infrequent: anemia, ecchymosis; Rare: blood dyscrasia, hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, lymphedema, lymphocytosis, petechia, purpura, thrombocythemia, thrombocytopenia Metabolic and Nutritional: Frequent: weight gain; Infrequent: dehydration, generalized edema, gout, hypercholesteremia, hyperlipemia, hypokalemia, peripheral edema; Rare: alcohol intolerance, alkaline phosphatase increased, BUN increased, creatine phosphokinase increased, hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, iron deficiency anemia, SGPT increased Musculoskeletal System: Infrequent: arthritis, bone pain, bursitis, leg cramps, tenosynovitis; Rare: arthrosis, chondrodystrophy, myasthenia, myopathy, myositis, osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis Nervous System: Frequent: agitation, amnesia, confusion, emotional lability, sleep disorder; Infrequent: abnormal gait, acute brain syndrome, akathisia, apathy, ataxia, buccoglossal syndrome, CNS depression, CNS stimulation, depersonalization, euphoria, hallucinations, hostility, hyperkinesia, hypertonia, hypesthesia, incoordination, libido increased, myoclonus, neuralgia, neuropathy, neurosis, paranoid reaction, personality disorder, psychosis, vertigo; Rare: abnormal electroencephalogram, antisocial reaction, circumoral paresthesia, coma, delusions, dysarthria, dystonia, extrapyramidal syndrome, foot drop, hyperesthesia, neuritis, paralysis, reflexes decreased, reflexes increased, stupor Respiratory System: Infrequent: asthma, epistaxis, hiccup, hyperventilation; Rare: apnea, atelectasis, cough decreased, emphysema, hemoptysis, hypoventilation, hypoxia, larynx edema, lung edema, pneumothorax, stridor Skin and Appendages: Infrequent: acne, alopecia, contact dermatitis, eczema, maculopapular rash, skin discoloration, skin ulcer, vesiculobullous rash; Rare: furunculosis, herpes zoster, hirsutism, petechial rash, psoriasis, purpuric rash, pustular rash, seborrhea Special Senses: Frequent: ear pain, taste perversion, tinnitus; Infrequent: conjunctivitis, dry eyes, mydriasis, photophobia; Rare: blepharitis, deafness, diplopia, exophthalmos, eye hemorrhage, glaucoma, hyperacusis, iritis, parosmia, scleritis, strabismus, taste loss, visual field defect Urogenital System: Frequent: urinary frequency; Infrequent: abortion, albuminuria, amenorrhea, anorgasmia, breast enlargement, breast pain, cystitis, dysuria, female lactation, fibrocystic breast, hematuria, leukorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, nocturia, polyuria, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary urgency, vaginal hemorrhage; Rare: breast engorgement, glycosuria, hypomenorrhea, kidney pain, oliguria, priapism, uterine hemorrhage, uterine fibroids enlarged<br/>Postintroduction Reports: Voluntary reports of adverse events temporally associated with fluoxetine that have been received since market introduction and that may have no causal relationship with the drug include the following: aplastic anemia, atrial fibrillation, cataract, cerebral vascular accident, cholestatic jaundice, confusion, dyskinesia (including, for example, a case of buccal-lingual-masticatorysyndrome with involuntary tongue protrusion reported to develop in a 77 year old female after 5 weeks of fluoxetine therapy and which completely resolved over the next few months following drug discontinuation), eosinophilic pneumonia, epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, exfoliative dermatitis, gynecomastia, heart arrest, hepatic failure/necrosis, hyperprolactinemia, hypoglycemia, immune-related hemolytic anemia, kidney failure, misuse/abuse, movement disorders developing in patients with risk factors including drugs associated with such events and worsening of preexisting movement disorders, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like events, optic neuritis, pancreatitis, pancytopenia, priapism, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, QT prolongation, serotonin syndrome (a range of signs and symptoms that can rarely, in its most severe form, resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, sudden unexpected death, suicidal ideation, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenicpurpura, vaginal bleeding after drug withdrawal, ventricular tachycardia (including Torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias), and violent behaviors.
Major Depressive Disorder: Fluoxetine is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder.<br/>Adult: The efficacy of fluoxetine was established in 5 and 6 week trials with depressed adult and geriatric outpatients (���18 years of age) whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III (currently DSM-IV) category of major depressive disorder . A major depressive episode (DSM-IV) implies a prominent and relatively persistent (nearly every day for at least 2 weeks) depressed or dysphoric mood that usually interferes with daily functioning, and includes at least five of the following nine symptoms: depressed mood; loss of interest in usual activities; significant change in weight and/or appetite; insomnia or hypersomnia; psychomotor agitation or retardation; increased fatigue; feelings of guilt or worthlessness; slowed thinking or impaired concentration; a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation. The effects of fluoxetine in hospitalized depressed patients have not been adequately studied. The efficacy of fluoxetine 20 mg once daily in maintaining a response in major depressive disorder for up to 38 weeks following 12 weeks of open-label acute treatment (50 weeks total) was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial.<br/>Pediatric (Children and Adolescents): The efficacy of fluoxetine in children and adolescents was established in two 8 to 9 week placebo-controlled clinical trials in depressed outpatients whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III-R or DSM-IV category of major depressive disorder . The usefulness of the drug in adult and pediatric patients receiving fluoxetine for extended periods should be reevaluated periodically.<br/>Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:<br/>Adult: Fluoxetine is indicated for the treatment of obsessions and compulsions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as defined in the DSM-III-R; i.e., the obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress, are time-consuming, or significantly interfere with social or occupational functioning. The efficacy of fluoxetine was established in 13 week trials with obsessive-compulsive outpatients whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III-R category of OCD . OCD is characterized by recurrent and persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) that are ego-dystonic and/or repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviors (compulsions) that are recognized by the person as excessive or unreasonable. The effectiveness of fluoxetine in long-term use, i.e., for more than 13 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use fluoxetine for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient .<br/>Pediatric (Children and Adolescents): The efficacy of fluoxetine in children and adolescents was established in a 13 week, dose titration, clinical trial in patients with OCD, as defined in DSM-IV .<br/>Bulimia Nervosa: Fluoxetine is indicated for the treatment of binge eating and vomiting behaviors in patients with moderate to severe bulimia nervosa. The efficacy of fluoxetine was established in 8 to 16 week trials for adult outpatients with moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, i.e., at least three bulimic episodes per week for 6 months . The efficacy of fluoxetine 60 mg/day in maintaining a response, in patients with bulimia who responded during an 8 week acute treatment phase while taking fluoxetine 60 mg/day and were then observed for relapse during a period of up to 52 weeks, was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial . Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use fluoxetine for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient .<br/>Panic Disorder: Fluoxetine is indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in DSM-IV. Panic disorder is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks, and associated concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications or consequences of the attacks, and/or a significant change in behavior related to the attacks. The efficacy of fluoxetine was established in two 12 week clinical trials in patients whose diagnoses corresponded to the DSM-IV category of panic disorder . Panic disorder (DSM-IV) is characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks, i.e., a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which four or more of the following symptoms develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes: 1) palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate; 2) sweating; 3) trembling or shaking; 4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering; 5) feeling of choking; 6) chest pain or discomfort; 7) nausea or abdominal distress; 8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint; 9) fear of losing control; 10) fear of dying; 11) paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations); 12) chills or hot flashes. The effectiveness of fluoxetine in long-term use, i.e., for more than 12 weeks, has not been established in placebo-controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use fluoxetine for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient .