Prevention of Endometrial Hyperplasia: PROMETRIUM Capsules should be given as a single daily dose at bedtime, 200 mg orally for 12 days sequentially per 28-day cycle, to postmenopausal women with a uterus who are receiving daily conjugated estrogens tablets. Secondary Amenorrhea: PROMETRIUM Capsules may be given as a single daily dose of 400 mg at bedtime for 10 days. Some women may experience difficulty swallowing PROMETRIUM Capsules. For these women, PROMETRIUM Capsules should be taken with a glass of water while in the standing position.
PROMETRIUM' (progesterone, USP) Capsules contain micronized progesterone for oral administration. Progesterone has a molecular weight of 314.47 and a molecular formula of CHO. Progesterone (pregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione) is a white or creamy white, odorless, crystalline powder practically insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, acetone and dioxane and sparingly soluble in vegetable oils, stable in air, melting between 126��and 131��C. The structural formula is: Progesterone is synthesized from a starting material from a plant source and is chemically identical to progesterone of human ovarian origin. PROMETRIUM Capsules are available in multiple strengths to afford dosage flexibility for optimum management. PROMETRIUM Capsules contain 100 mg or 200 mg micronized progesterone. The inactive ingredients for PROMETRIUM Capsules 100 mg include: peanut oil NF, gelatin NF, glycerin USP, lecithin NF, titanium dioxide USP, D&C Yellow No. 10, and FD&C Red No. 40. The inactive ingredients for PROMETRIUM Capsules 200 mg include: peanut oil NF, gelatin NF, glycerin USP, lecithin NF, titanium dioxide USP, D&C Yellow No. 10, and FD&C Yellow No. 6.
PROMETRIUM Capsules are an oral dosage form of micronized progesterone which is chemically identical to progesterone of ovarian origin. The oral bioavailability of progesterone is increased through micronization.<br/>Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: After oral administration of progesterone as a micronized soft-gelatin capsule formulation, maximum serum concentrations were attained within 3 hours. The absolute bioavailability of micronized progesterone is not known. Table 1 summarizes the mean pharmacokinetic parameters in postmenopausal women after five oral daily doses of PROMETRIUM Capsules 100 mg as a micronized soft-gelatin capsule formulation. Serum progesterone concentrations appeared linear and dose proportional following multiple dose administration of PROMETRIUM Capsules 100 mg over the dose range 100 mg/day to 300 mg/day in postmenopausal women. Although doses greater than 300 mg/day were not studied in females, serum concentrations from a study in male volunteers appeared linear and dose proportional between 100 mg/day and 400 mg/day. The pharmacokinetic parameters in male volunteers were generally consistent with those seen in postmenopausal women. Distribution: Progesterone is approximately 96% to 99% bound to serum proteins, primarily to serum albumin (50% to 54%) and transcortin (43% to 48%). Metabolism: Progesterone is metabolized primarily by the liver largely to pregnanediols and pregnanolones. Pregnanediols and pregnanolones are conjugated in the liver to glucuronide and sulfate metabolites. Progesterone metabolites which are excreted in the bile may be deconjugated and may be further metabolized in the gut via reduction, dehydroxylation, and epimerization. Excretion: The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pregnanediol and pregnanolone are excreted in the bile and urine. Progesterone metabolites which are excreted in the bile may undergo enterohepatic recycling or may be excreted in the feces. Special Populations: The pharmacokinetics of PROMETRIUM Capsules have not been assessed in low body weight or obese patients. Food���Drug Interaction: Concomitant food ingestion increased the bioavailability of PROMETRIUM Capsules relative to a fasting state when administered to postmenopausal women at a dose of 200 mg. Drug���Drug Interaction: The metabolism of progesterone by human liver microsomes was inhibited by ketoconazole (IC<0.1��M). Ketoconazole is a known inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4, hence these data suggest that ketoconazole or other known inhibitors of this enzyme may increase the bioavailability of progesterone. The clinical relevance of the in vitro findings is unknown. Coadministration of conjugated estrogens and PROMETRIUM Capsules to 29 postmenopausal women over a 12-day period resulted in an increase in total estrone concentrations (Cmax 3.68 ng/mL to 4.93 ng/mL) and total equilin concentrations (Cmax 2.27 ng/mL to 3.22 ng/mL) and a decrease in circulating 17��estradiol concentrations (Cmax 0.037 ng/mL to 0.030 ng/mL). The half-life of the conjugated estrogens was similar with coadministration of PROMETRIUM Capsules. Table 2 summarizes the pharmacokinetic parameters.<br/>Clinical Studies: Endometrial Protection: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 358 postmenopausal women, each with an intact uterus, received treatment for up to 36 months. The treatment groups were: PROMETRIUM Capsules at the dose of 200 mg/day for 12 days per 28-day cycle in combination with conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg/day (n=120); conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg/day only (n=119); or placebo (n=119). The subjects in all three treatment groups were primarily Caucasian women (87% or more of eachgroup). The results for the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in women receiving up to 3 years of treatment are shown in Table 3. A comparison of the PROMETRIUM Capsules plus conjugated estrogens treatment group to the conjugated estrogens only group showed a significantly lower rate of hyperplasia (6% combination product vs. 64% estrogen alone) in the PROMETRIUM Capsules plus conjugated estrogens treatment group throughout 36 months of treatment. The times to diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia over 36 months of treatment are shown in Figure 1. This figure illustrates graphically that the proportion of patients with hyperplasia was significantly greater for the conjugated estrogens group (64%) compared to the conjugated estrogens plus PROMETRIUM Capsules group (6%). The discontinuation rates due to hyperplasia over the 36 months of treatment are as shown in Table 4. For any degree of hyperplasia, the discontinuation rate for patients who received conjugated estrogens plus PROMETRIUM Capsules was similar to that of the placebo only group, while the discontinuation rate for patients who received conjugated estrogensalone was significantly higher. Women who permanently discontinued treatment due to hyperplasia were similar in demographics to the overall study population. In the same 3-year clinical trial, postmenopausal women were treated with PROMETRIUM Capsules in combination with conjugated estrogens, conjugated estrogens only, or placebo. There was no statistically significant difference between the PROMETRIUM Capsules plus conjugated estrogens group and the conjugated estrogens only group in increases of HDL-C and triglycerides, or in decreases of LDL-C. The changes observed in lipid profiles are shown in Table 5.<br/>Women's Health Initiative Studies: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) enrolled a total of 27,000 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women to assess the risks and benefits of either the use of oral 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens (CE) per day alone or the use of oral 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) per day compared to placebo in the prevention of certain chronic diseases. The primary endpoint was the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) (nonfatal myocardial infarction and CHD death), with invasive breast cancer as the primary adverse outcome studied. A���global index���included the earliest occurrence of CHD, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism (PE), endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, or death due to other cause. The study did not evaluate the effects of CE or CE/MPA on menopausal symptoms. The CE/MPA substudy was stopped early because, according to the predefined stopping rule, the increased risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular events exceeded the specified benefits included in the���global index.���Results of the CE/MPA substudy, which included 16,608 women (average age of 63 years, range 50 to 79; 83.9% White, 6.5% Black, 5.5% Hispanic), after an average follow-up of 5.2 years are presented in Table 6 below. For those outcomes included in the "global index," the absolute excess risks per 10,000 women-years in the group treated with CE/MPA were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 8 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while the absolute risk reductions per 10,000 women-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures. The absolute excess risk of events included in the���global index���was 19 per 10,000 women-years. There was no difference between the groups in terms of all-cause mortality.<br/>Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, enrolled 4,532 predominantly healthy postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older (47% were age 65 to 69 years, 35% were 70 to 74 years, and 18% were 75 years of age and older) to evaluate the effects of CE/MPA (0.625 mg conjugated estrogens plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate) on the incidence of probable dementia (primary outcome) compared with placebo. After an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the estrogen/progestin group (45 per 10,000 women-years) and 21 in the placebo group (22 per 10,000 women-years) were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia in the hormone therapy group was 2.05 (95% CI, 1.21 to 3.48) compared to placebo. Differences between groups became apparent in the first year of treatment. It is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women.
PROMETRIUM Capsules should not be used in women with any of the following conditions:
PROMETRIUM' (progesterone, USP) Capsules 100 mg are round, peach-colored capsules branded with black imprint���SV.��� NDC 0032-1708-01 (Bottle of 100) PROMETRIUM' (progesterone, USP) Capsules 200 mg are oval, pale yellow-colored capsules branded with black imprint���SV2.��� NDC 0032-1711-01 (Bottle of 100) Store at 25��C (77��F); excursions permitted to 15��to 30��C (59��to 86��F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Protect from excessive moisture. Dispense in tight, light-resistant container as defined in USP/NF, accompanied by a Patient Insert. Keep out of reach of children. Manufactured by:Catalent Pharma SolutionsSt. Petersburg, FL 33716 Marketed by:Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Marietta, GA 30062 ��2008 Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Inc.All rights reserved. 500032 Rev Jan 2008 500033 Rev Jan 2008
WARNINGS: Progestins and estrogens should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study reported increased risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) relative to placebo. The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, reported increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women. Other doses of oral conjugated estrogens with medroxyprogesterone and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins were not studied in the WHI clinical trials. In the absence of comparable data and product-specific studies, the relevance of the WHI findings to other products has not been established. Therefore, the risks should be assumed to be similar for all estrogen and progestin products. Because of these risks, estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.
Use of estrogens with a progestin may increase the risk of breast cancer compared to estrogen alone.<br/>Ovarian Cancer: The CE/MPA substudy of WHI reported that estrogen plus progestin increased the risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for CE/MPA vs. placebo was 1.58 (95% confidence interval 0.77���3.24) but was not statistically significant. The absolute risk for CE/MPA vs. placebo was 4.2 vs. 2.7 cases per 10,000 women-years. In some epidemiologic studies, the use of estrogen alone, in particular for ten or more years, has been associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Other epidemiologic studies have not found these associations.<br/>General:<br/>Information for the Patient: See accompanying Patient Insert. General: This product contains peanut oil and should not be used if you are allergic to peanuts.<br/>Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions: The following laboratory results may be altered by the use of estrogen-progestin combination drugs: Fasting and 2-hour plasma insulin and glucose levels following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and fibrinogen levels were measured in patients receiving PROMETRIUM Capsules at a dose of 200 mg/day for 12 days per 28-day cycle in combination with conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg/day (n=120). Table 7 summarizes these data. Plasma insulin levels 2 hours post-OGTT were decreased from baseline. The fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels were also decreased from baseline. Glucose levels 2 hours post-OGTT were increased slightly. There was no effect on fibrinogen levels. For information on changes in lipid profile, see the Clinical Studies subsection, Table 5.<br/>Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Progesterone has not been tested for carcinogenicity in animals by the oral route of administration. When implanted into female mice, progesterone produced mammary carcinomas, ovarian granulosa cell tumors and endometrial stromal sarcomas. In dogs, long-term intramuscular injections produced nodular hyperplasia and benign and malignant mammary tumors. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injections of progesterone decreased the latency period and increased the incidence of mammary tumors in rats previously treated with a chemicalcarcinogen. Progesterone did not show evidence of genotoxicity in in vitro studies for point mutations or for chromosomal damage. In vivo studies for chromosome damage have yielded positive results in mice at oral doses of 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg. Exogenously administered progesterone has been shown to inhibit ovulation in a number of species and it is expected that high doses given for an extended duration would impair fertility until the cessation of treatment.<br/>Pregnancy Category B: Reproductive studies have been performed in mice at doses up to 9 times the human oral dose, in rats at doses up to 44 times the human oral dose, in rabbits at a dose of 10 mcg/day delivered locally within the uterus by an implanted device, in guinea pigs at doses of approximately one-half the human oral dose and in rhesus monkeys at doses approximately the human dose, all based on body surface area, and have revealed little or no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to progesterone. Rare cases of congenital anomalies including cleft palate, cleft lip, hypospadia, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and other congenital heart defects have been reported in the infants of women using progesterone, including PROMETRIUM Capsules, in early pregnancy. Definitive causality has not been established. Rare instances of fetal death and spontaneous abortion have been reported in pregnant women prescribed PROMETRIUM Capsules for unapproved indications including the prevention of such outcomes. Studies in humans cannot rule out the possibility of harm. Therefore, PROMETRIUM Capsules should be used during pregnancy only if indicated.<br/>Nursing Mothers: The administration of any drug to nursing mothers should be done only when clearly necessary since many drugs are excreted in human milk. Detectable amounts of progestin have been identified in the milk of nursing mothers receiving progestins. Caution should be exercised when PROMETRIUM Capsules are administered to a nursing woman.<br/>Pediatric Use: PROMETRIUM Capsules are not indicated in children.<br/>Geriatric Use: Clinical studies of PROMETRIUM Capsules did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. In the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, including 4,532 women 65 years of age and older, followed for an average of 4 years, 82% (n = 3,729) were 65 to 74 while 18% (n = 803) were 75 and over. Most women (80%) had no prior hormone therapy use. Women treated with conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate were reported to have a two-fold increase in the risk of developing probable dementia. Alzheimer's disease was the most common classification of probable dementia in both the conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate group and the placebo group. Ninety percent of the cases of probable dementia occurred in the 54% of women that were older than 70.
No studies on overdosage have been conducted in humans. In the case of overdosage, PROMETRIUM Capsules should be discontinued and the patient should be treated symptomatically.
See BOXED WARNINGS, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximate rates. Endometrial Protection:Table 8 lists adverse experiences which were reported in���2% of patients (regardless of relationship to treatment) who received cyclic PROMETRIUM Capsules, 200 mg daily (12 days per calendar month cycle) with daily 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen, in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 875 postmenopausal women. Secondary Amenorrhea:Table 9 lists adverse experiences which were reported in���5% of patients receiving PROMETRIUM Capsules, 400 mg/day, in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in estrogen-primed (6 weeks) postmenopausal women receiving conjugated estrogens 0.625 mg/day and cyclic (10 days per calendar month cycle) PROMETRIUM Capsules at a dose of 400 mg/day, for three cycles. The most common adverse experiences reported in���5% of patients in all PROMETRIUM Capsules dosage groups studied in this trial (100 mg/day to 400 mg/day) were: dizziness (16%), breast pain (11%), headache (10%), abdominal pain (10%), fatigue (9%), viral infection (7%), abdominal distention (6%), musculoskeletal pain (6%), emotional lability (6%), irritability (5%), and upper respiratory tract infection (5%). Other adverse events reported in<5% of patients taking PROMETRIUM Capsules include: Administration Site Conditions: edema, edema peripheral Blood and Lymphatic System: lymphadenopathy Cardiac Disorders: angina pectoris, palpitation Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: earache Eye Disorders: abnormal vision Gastrointestinal System Disorders: constipation, dry mouth, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic rectum, hiatus hernia, vomiting General Disorders: chest pain, fever Infections: abscess, herpes simplex Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications: accidental injury Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: arthritis, leg cramps, muscle disorder, myalgia Nervous System Disorders: hypertonia, impaired concentration, somnolence, speech disorder Psychiatric Disorders: anxiety, confusion, insomnia, personality disorder Renal and Urinary Disorders: urinary tract infection Reproductive System Disorders: fungal vaginitis, leukorrhea, uterine fibroid, vaginal dryness, vaginitis Respiratory System Disorders: bronchitis, nasal congestion, pharyngitis, pneumonitis, sinusitis Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: acne, verruca, wound debridement Vascular Disorders: hypertension The following adverse experiences have been reported with PROMETRIUM Capsules in other U.S. clinical trials: increased sweating, asthenia, tooth disorder, anorexia, increased appetite, nervousness, and breast enlargement. In addition to the adverse events observed in clinical trials, the following spontaneous adverse events have been reported during the marketing of PROMETRIUM Capsules. Cardiac Disorders: circulatory collapse, tachycardia Congenital, Familial, and Genetic Disorders: cleft lip, cleft palate, congenital heart disease, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: tinnitus, vertigo Eye Disorders: blurred vision, diplopia, visual disturbance Gastrointestinal Disorders: acute pancreatitis, dysphagia, swollen tongue General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: abnormal gait, difficulty walking, feeling abnormal, feeling drunk Hepatobiliary Disorders: cholestasis, cholestatic hepatitis, jaundice, hepatitis, hepatic failure, hepatic necrosis, increased liver function tests Immune System Disorders: anaphylactic reaction, hypersensitivity Investigations: alanine aminotransferase increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased, gamma-glutamyl transferase increased, hepatic enzyme increased, blood glucose increased, weight decreased, weight increased Musculoskeletal Disorders: arthralgia, muscle cramp Neoplasms Benign, Malignant, and Unspecified: endometrial carcinoma Nervous System Disorders: convulsion, depressed consciousness, dysarthria, loss of consciousness, paresthesia, sedation, stupor, syncope (with and without hypotension), transient ischemic attack Pregnancy, Puerperium, and Perinatal Conditions: intra-uterine death, spontaneous abortion Psychiatric Disorders: aggression, depersonalization, disorientation, suicidal ideation, Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: menorrhagia, menstrual disorder, metrorrhagia, ovarian cyst Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: asthma, choking, dyspnea, face edema, throat tightness Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: alopecia, pruritus, urticaria Vascular Disorders: hypertension, hypotension The following additional adverse experiences have been observed in women taking estrogen and/or progestins in general: breakthrough bleeding, spotting, change in menstrual flow, amenorrhea, changes in weight (increase or decrease), changes in the cervical squamo-columnar junction and cervical secretions, cholestatic jaundice, anaphylactoid reactions and anaphylaxis, rash (allergic) with and without pruritus, melasma or chloasma, that may persist when drug is discontinued, dysmenorrhea, increase in size of uterine leiomyomata, ovarian cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, galactorrhea, nipple discharge, increased incidence of gallbladder disease, enlargement of hepatic hemangiomas, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, hirsutism, hemorrhagic eruption, intolerance to contact lenses, migraine, chorea, reduced carbohydrate tolerance, aggravation of porphyria, changes in libido, hypocalcemia, angioedema, exacerbation of asthma, increased triglycerides.
Progestins and estrogens should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study reported increased risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) relative to placebo. The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, reported increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women. Other doses of oral conjugated estrogens with medroxyprogesterone and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins were not studied in the WHI clinical trials. In the absence of comparable data and product-specific studies, the relevance of the WHI findings to other products has not been established. Therefore, the risks should be assumed to be similar for all estrogen and progestin products. Because of these risks, estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman.
PROMETRIUM Capsules are indicated for use in the prevention of endometrial hyperplasia in nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women who are receiving conjugated estrogens tablets. They are also indicated for use in secondary amenorrhea.